SOMOT Samuel

Chercheur permanent au CNRM depuis 2003

Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques

Météo-France / CNRS / Université de Toulouse, UMR3589

Responsable de l’équipe de modélisation climatique régionale, MOSCA) depuis 2016

42 avenue Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse Cedex 1, FRANCE

Tél. +33 (0) 5 61 07 93 62 / Fax +33 (0) 5 61 07 96 10, Office #295 : Bâtiment Navier (CNRM)

courriel : samuel (dot) somot (at) meteo (dot) fr

My Curriculum Vitae (pdf in English) : Europass format 2017 - ANR short version 2020 - ANR short version 2022

Voir aussi Google scholar, Research Gate, ORCID, Scopus, Web-of-Science


La dernière version de mon cours de modélisation régionale du climat avec illustration par le changement climatique attendu en Europe et en France (en français, version courte, version longue) possède un DOI citable (doi:10.5281/zenodo.4586910) et est disponible Une version enregistrée est maintenant accessible.

Inspiré du 6ème rapport du GIEC et juste à temps pour la COP26 à Glasgow, je vous propose ce film grand public de 5 minutes qui décrit le climat de l’Europe envisagé pour 2050. C’est ici en français, anglais, allemand, espagnol, italien, suédois et croate. (merci l’agence Vuxe, le projet EUCP, la com du CNRS).

Interview pour la radio suisse RTS dans l’émission Prise de Terre sur les épisodes méditerranéens de pluie intense : lien du podcast

Interview pour le web-media Le Blob reprise sur : lien 3 questions sur le changement climatique du bassin méditerranéen

 Scientific interests

  • Regional climate modelling
  • Mediterranean Sea, Deep Water Formation (DWF) and the associated Mediterranean ThermoHaline Circulation (MTHC)
  • Mediterranean cyclogenesis and Mediterranean intense precipitations
  • Fully-coupled Regional Climate System Models dedicated to the Mediterranean climate study

Regional climate modelling :

The goal of the regional climate modelling activity is to study regional physical phenomena not represented in state-of-the-art global climate models because of their too low spatial resolution (typically 100km) and to study these processes at climate time scales (intraseasonal, interannual and decadal variability, trend, climate change), that are not affordable by very high-resolution process-oriented models (MesoNH, …). Regional climate modelling then requires both long-term simulations and high-spatial resolution.

In the frame of the climate group at CNRM, I’m using a large variety of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) all developed in-house : the tilted and stretched-grid version of ARPEGE-Climate, the Limited Area Models (LAM) CNRM-ALADIN (previously called ALADIN-Climate) and the convection-permitting regional climate model CNRM-AROME. ARPEGE-Climate is a global and spectral AGCM allowing a resolution of 10-50 km over the area of interest in using its zoom capability. It can also be considered as a two-way nested RCM. In contrary, CNRM-ALADIN (see Nabat et al. 2020 for the description of the last version) is forced at its lateral boundaries either by ECWMF products (ERA40, ERA-Interim, ERA5, ECMWF analysis) or by GCMs (ARPEGE-Climate, CNRM-CM5, CNRM-ESM2, others CMIP5 or CMIP6 GCMs). Up-to-now CNRM-ALADIN was used at 150, 50, 25 and 12 km resolution. Using reanalysis-driven simulations such ARPEGE-Climate with spectral nudging (also called ARPERA, Herrmann and Somot 2008, Herrmann et al. 2010) or CNRM-ALADIN with lateral nudging and spectral nudging (also called ALDERA, Hamon et al. 2016, Waldman et al. 2017a, 2017b) we developed “poor-man regional reanalysis” or “regional hindcast” in order to obtain physically-consistent high-resolution meteorological fields following the real chronology over a long period of time (typically 1958-2013 for ARPERA, 1979-2013 for ALDERA, 1979-2019 for ALDERA2). These regional hindcast simulations are very useful for model physics/configuration evaluation (Herrmann et al. 2011, Sevault et al. 2014, Nabat et al. 2015a, Darmaraki et al. 2019b), past case studies (Herrmann and Somot 2008, Herrmann et al. 2010, Waldman et al. 2017a, 2017b) and past climate variability studies (Josey et al. 2011, L’Hévéder et al. 2013, Nabat et al. 2014, Somot et al. 2018, Darmaraki et al. 2019b) and can be used to replace observations if missing, for example to drive regional ocean models (Beuvier et al. 2010, Herrmann et al. 2010, Waldman et al. 2018, Adloff et al. 2018).

Using that numerical tools, my research activities focus on the Euro-Mediterranean area. I study the regional climate variability but also some specific regional physical phenomena such as Mediterranean cyclogenesis (Somot 2005, Sanchez-Gomez and Somot 2018), regional winds (Herrmann et al. 2011), heavy precipitation events (Colin et al. 2010, Beaulant et al. 2011, Fumière et al. 2019, Ivusic et al. 2021, Caillaud et al. 2021), Mediterranean intense air-sea fluxes (Herrmann and Somot 2008, Papadopoulos et al. 2012, Waldman et al. 2017a, Somot et al. 2018), Mediterranean Marine Heatwaves (Darmaraki et al. 2019a, 2019b) as well as open-ocean deep convection, water mass formation and Mediterranean thermohaline circulation (Somot et al. 2006, 2018, Herrmann and Somot 2008, Waldman et al. 2017ab, 2018a). I also focus on the Mediterranean Sea Water and Heat Budgets concerning the estimations of the various terms and the model evaluation (Sanchez-Gomez et al. 2009, Elguindi et al. 2010, Sanchez-Gomez et al. 2011, Dubois et al. 2012, Soto-Navarro et al. 2014, Sevault et al. 2014, Nabat et al. 2014, 2015a). My scientific interests include also methodology studies dealing with the main qualities and drawbacks of the Regional Climate Models (Sanchez-Gomez et al. 2008, Radu et al. 2008, Colin et al. 2010, Sanchez-Gomez and Somot 2018, Gutiérrez et al. 2020, Boé et al. 2020, Evin et al. 2021) as well as all kind of studies related to the understanding of Mediterranean climate variability and change.

Mediterranean Sea, Deep Water Formation (DWF) and the associated Mediterranean ThermoHaline Circulation (MTHC) :

The Mediterranean basin is a good case-study for regional climate modelling. It is indeed surrounded by various and complex topography channelling regional winds (Mistral, Tramontane, Bora, Meltem, Sirocco) that define local climates. Many small-size islands limits the low-level air masses and its coastline is particularly complex. These geographical characteristics require high-resolution climate modelling. What is true for the Mediterranean climate is also true for the Mediterranean Sea (complex coastlines, islands, narrow and shallow straits). To correctly represent the Mediterranean Sea, we need ocean models with at least a 10 km resolution. In the frame of the climate group at CNRM, we develop and use different regional Mediterranean versions of the global ocean NEMO code : OPAMED8 (Somot et al. 2006), NEMOMED8 (9 to 12 km spatial resolution and 43 vertical levels, Beuvier et al. 2010), NEMOMED12 (6 to 7 km spatial resolution and 75 vertical levels, Beuvier et al. 2012, Waldman et al. 2017a) and more recently an AGRIF zoom within NEMOMED12 for the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (2 to 2.5 km spatial resolution, Waldman et al. 2017b). For a long time, the Mediterranean Sea has been considered as a laboratory of the global ocean as it shows (close to the European coast) many key and interesting ocean physical processes and, among them, the open-sea deep convection that usually stands in the Greenland, the Labrador and the Weddell Seas. The Mediterranean areas of deep convection (Gulf of Lions, South Adriatic, Rhodes Gyre and the Cretan Sea) lead to an anti-estuarine thermohaline circulation with 3 main layers : a surface layer with the Atlantic Water (AW, warm and fresh) that flows into the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar, an intermediate layer with the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW, relatively warm and very salty) and a deep one with the different cold and salty water masses (WMDW, AdDW, EMDW, CDW). The ocean deep convection, the deep water formation and the MTHC are well-adapted processes for regional climate modelling tools. Indeed, their modelling requires high spatial air-sea fluxes, fine representation of the Mediterranean Sea and they show strong interannual to decadal variability and long-term trends. Moreover the MTHC can influence the surrounding climate in modulating the local SST. It has also an impact on the Atlantic Ocean through the Mediterranean Outflow Waters that flow into the Atlantic at about 1000 m and are considered as a source of salt and heat for the Atlantic Ocean.

The study of the Mediterranean Sea, of the high-resolution air-sea fluxes, of the open-sea deep convection, the deep water mass formation and of the Mediterranean Thermohaline Circulation, its regional climate influence and its climate-scale variability and changes are among my main research interests (Somot et al. 2006, Somot et al. 2018, Herrmann and Somot 2008, Herrmann et al. 2008a, 2008b, 2010, Beuvier et al. 2010, Josey et al. 2011, Herrmann et al. 2011, Beuvier et al. 2012, L’Hévéder et al. 2013, Durrieu de Madron et al. 2013, Adloff et al. 2015, 2018, Waldman et al. 2016, 2017a, 2017b, 2018a, 2018b, Dunic et al. 2018, 2019, Soto-Navarro et al. 2020).

Mediterranean cyclogenesis and Mediterranean intense precipitations :

Another interesting Mediterranean phenomenon is the cyclogenesis. The Gulf of Genoa is one of the major cyclogenesis area of the Northern Hemisphere. The cyclones are formed in the lee side of the main orography anomalies of the Mediterranean basin such as the Alps, the Apennins or the Atlas Mountains. The Mediterranean cyclones are sub-synoptic systems, smaller and with a shorter life-time than their Atlantic cousins. Their specific scales, their orography-induced genesis and their ability to produce intense precipitation events require to use regional climate numerical tools to study their interannual variability and their possible evolution under the climate change. The Mediterranean cyclogenesis was one of my first scientific topic (see my PhD) but my scientific interest slowly moved towards one of the related phenomena : the Mediterranean Heavy Precipitation Events (HPE) that can reached few 100 mm/day precipitations in the South-East of France and in many other countries around the Mediterranean basin during the Fall season. The better way of modelling such events, their interannual variability, and their possible evolution during the 21st century constitutes now one of my main research topics thanks to the HyMeX, CYPRIM, MEDUP, REMEMBER, FPS-convection, Med-CORDEX, EURO-CORDEX and EUCP projects. In particular, I have contributed to investigate the ability of high-resolution climate models to represent such events, first in RCMs at 50 and 12 km resolution (Déqué and Somot 2008, Ricard et al. 2009, Colin et al. 2010, Ivusic et al. 2021) and more recently in Convection-Permitting RCMs at 2.5km (Déqué et al. 2016, Coppola et al. 2018, Fumière et al. 2019, Caillaud et al. 2021). I have also worked on assessing the past trends (Ribes et al. 2019) and the future evolution of Fall Mediterranean HPEs (Tramblay and Somot 2018, Coppola et al. 2021). Before being recently able to run kilometer-scale climate models, I also contributed to develop hybrid downscaling techniques mixing dynamical and statistical methods in collaboration with the CNRM meso-scale research group (Beaulant et al. 2011). The impact of the high frequency ocean-atmosphere coupling on these intense events has also been studied (Berthou et al. 2016).

Fully-coupled Regional Climate System Models dedicated to the Mediterranean climate study :

The cyclogenesis, the intense precipitation, the open-sea deep convection and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation have at least one common point. These phenomena strongly depend on the high-resolution air-sea interactions. Moreover it has been demonstrated that the deep convection occur following cyclone-induced winds and strong air-sea fluxes. The large heat and water losses induced by the Mediterranean cyclones and winds enhance the deep convection. Besides the ocean mixed layer depth drives the Mediterranean heat content and then its capacity to release water and energy to feed Mediterranean cyclones and intense precipitation events. It is therefore logical to study these processes through an air-sea coupled approach using high-resolution Atmosphere-Ocean Regional Climate Model (AORCM). This scientific topic started during my PhD defended in December 2005. Since 2002, we developed at CNRM various Mediterranean-dedicated AORCMs first coupling the stretched ARPEGE-Climate with OPAMED8 (Somot et al. 2008, Somot et al. 2019, Dubois et al. 2012) then the LAM ALADIN with NEMOMED8 (Herrmann et al. 2011) using the OASIS coupler developed at CERFACS.

More recently, we enlarged our primary regional ocean-atmosphere approach by integrating other components of the regional climate system to obtain fully coupled Mediterranean-dedicated Regional Climate System Models (RCSM). In the frame of the HyMeX and Med-CORDEX programmes, we developed the 4th, 5th and 6th generations of the CNRM Regional Climate System Model. CNRM-RCSM4 (Sevault et al. 2014, Nabat et al. 2014, Nabat et al. 2015a, Somot et al. 2018) includes the regional representation of all the physical components of the regional climate system that is to say, the atmosphere (ALADIN, 50km), the land surface and hydrology (ISBA, 50 km), the rivers (TRIP, 50 km), the ocean (NEMOMED8, 10 km). CNRM-RCSM5 (Nabat et al. 2015b) adds the interactive and natural aerosol representation (TACTIC, 50 km).

Finally, we achieved the development of the 6th generation of the CNRM RCSM (CNRM-RCSM6, Darmaraki et al. 2019b) by increasing the model resolution (CNRM-ALADIN at 12km and 91 vertical levels, NEMOMED at 6km and 75 vertical levels, SURFEX at 12km), by adding new components (such as a complex land surface hydrology using ISBA-CTRIP, natural and anthropogenic aerosols with TACTIC, lakes with FLAKE and we hope soon city with TEB) and by increasing the coupling freqency (OASIS-MCT, 1 hour).

With these numerical tools, we studied the above-mentioned physical phenomena as well as their interannual to decadal variability. Differences between non-coupled and coupled models have been identified and understood in the mean behaviour as well as in the interannual variability of some of these phenomena. CNRM-RCSM4 also allows to produce consistent regional climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean climate (Reale et al. 2020) and the Mediterranean Sea (Darmaraki et al. 2019a, Soto-Navarro et al. 2020). The possible evolution of the Mediterranean cyclogenesis, the heavy precipitation events, the Mediterranean marine heatwaves, the ocean deep convection, the deep water mass formation and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation during the 21st century have been simulated following various IPCC climate change hypothesis (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5).

Today, all the institutes developing Mediterranean RCSMs are coordinated in the Med-CORDEX initiative (, Ruti et al. 2016, Somot et al. 2018b). Outputs from CNRM-RCSM are available in the Med-CORDEX open database in netcdf and for the SST in the IPCC-AR6 Interactive Atlas.

 Projects :

List of the programmes and projects in which I have collaborated or I collaborate.

International programmes

Med-CLIVAR : Study of the climate variability with the Mediterranean area, atmosphere and ocean components, on-going, member of the Steering Group

WCRP–CORDEX : International intercomparison program for Regional Climate Models validation and coordinated regional scenarios for the IPCC-AR5, on-going, Med-CORDEX Point of Contact

Med–CORDEX : Mediterranean region of the International CORDEX programme (modelling of all the components of the regional climate system, 12 km RCM, fully coupled RCSM). Med-CORDEX is currently the regional climate modelling task of HyMeX (former HyMeX-TTM3) on-going, co-lead, member of the Steering Committee

HyMeX : Study of the Mediterranean hydrological cycle and related extreme events, 2010-2020, finished, member of the French science committee

MerMex : Study of the Mediterranean Sea physics, biogeochemistry and marine ecosystems, 2010-2020, finished

Charmex : Study of the Mediterranean Chemistry and Aerosols, 2010-2020, finished

MISTRALS : Meta-programme, also called Chantier Méditerranée, for the integrated study of the Mediterranean at regional and local scales, 2010-2020 finished. This includes my participation to HyMeX, Charmex, MerMex, PlankMed, ENVI-MED CLIHMag and ENVI-MED Med-MaHb, Impact CC transverse action, Med-CORDEX, SiMed

European projects

H2020-EUCP : European Climate Prediction system, on-going, S. Somot, CNRM PI

C3S_34b_lot2 (PRINCIPLES) : C3S production of European climate projections, finished, S. Somot, CNRM PI

H2020-MARmaED : MARine MAnagement and Ecosystem Dynamics under Climate Change (MARmaED), a Marie Sklodowska-Curie European Training Network, finished, S. Somot, CNRM PI

FP7-CLIMRUN : Research project on the development of pilote climate service for the Mediterranean region, finished, S. Somot, WP2 leader

FP7-IMPACT2C : Climate change impact for the Mediterranean Basin, development and intercomparison of AORCM (ARPEGE-Climate / NEMO-MED2 / NEMO-ORCA2), finished

ERANet-CIRCLE-MED CANTICO : Risk assessment in the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia), integrated project from regional climate modelling to risk, finished, S. Somot, French PI

FP6-CECILIA : Very high resolution modelling of Eastern Europe Climate and climate change impact in Eastern Europe, ALADIN-Climate (10 km), finished

FP6-ENSEMBLES : Regional climate modelling : European hindcast and climate change scenarios, intercomparison, ARPEGE-Climat, ALADIN-Climat (20 km), finished

FP5-PRUDENCE : Regional climate modelling and climate change scenario for Europe, ARPEGE-Climat (50 km), finished

FP4-MERCURE : Regional climate modelling, model validation and improvment, ARPEGE-Climat (50 km), finished

French programmes and projects

CLIMERI : French coordinating infrastructure for the climate earth system modelling, on-going, S. Somot, member of the Scientific Steering Committee in charge of the regional climate simulations

ANR-PopN’Co : The main goals are 1) to quantify the inter-annual variance in connectivity over 10 y (the lifetime of a typical coastal species), and 2) to compare it to the potential shifts (i) among recent past and present generations, and (ii) induced by climate-change over the long term. on-going, S. Somot, CNRM PI

PPR-SiMed, PPR-SiMed-2, HyMeX-SiMed-3, MISTRALS-SiMed-4, SiMed-5 : French coordination for an improved modelling of the Mediterranean Sea using in particular the NEMOMED configurations, on-going

ANR-REMEMBER : The main goal is to improve the components (atmosphere, ocean, land surface) and the interfaces (air-sea, land-atmosphere, river) of the Mediterranean Regional Climate System Models developed in France CNRM-RCSM4, MORCE-MED, LMDz-MED in order to better assess and project specific Mediterranean risks (intense precipitation, droughts and sea level evolution) finished, S. Somot, CNRM PI, WP5 co-leader

ANR-ASICS-MED : Evaluate the role of the ocean meso- and submeso-scale processes in the dense water mass formation in the North-West Mediterranean Sea, follwing the HyMeX-2013 field campaign. le rôle de la méso et subméso-échelle océanique dans la production des eaux denses en Méditerranée occidentale, d’après la campagne de l’hiver 2013 du programme HyMeX finished

LEFE-MISSTERRE, LEFE-MISSTERRE-II, LEFE-MISSTERRE-III : coordination of the French climate modelling community including Regional Climate Modelling, finished, S. Somot, in charge of the regional climate modelling coordination

ANR-VURCA : Impact of climate change on French cities, case of the heat waves, finished

ANR-MEDUP : Mediterranean extreme events and uncertainties from the short-term forecast to the regional climate scales, finished

ANR-SCAMPEI : Very high resolution climate modelling for France, impact of climate change on the snow cover and hydrology (ALADIN-Climate, 10 km), finished

ANR-CICLE : Tests for the set-up of a quadri-coupled model : towards a regional coupled model embedded into a global coupled model for the Mediterranean climate study (ARPEGE+ALADIN+NEMO-ORCA2+NEMO-MED8), finished

ACI-CYPRIM : Intense precipitation events in the South-East of France at different time scales, development of new statistico-dynamical downscaling methods for regional climate study, AORCM SAMM=ARPEGE/OPAMED8, first Mediterranean AORCM SRES-A2 scenario, finished

GICC-MedWater : Modelling and climate change impact for the Mediterranean area, use of the stretched ARPEGE-Climate for a first Mediterranean Sea scenario with OPAMED8 (SRES-A2), finished

 Peer-reviewed Publications :

Since 2006, I’m co-author of more than 130 peer-reviewed publications or book chapters.
Publication list by year (link)
Publication list by number of citation (link)


Solidoro C., Cossarini G., Lazzari P., Galli G., Bolzon G., Somot S., Salon S. (2022) Modelling carbon budgets and acidification in the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem under contemporary and future climate. Frontiers in Marine Science, doi : 10.3389/fmars.2021.781522


Evin G., Somot S., Hingray B. (2021) Balanced estimate and uncertainty assessment of European climate change using the large EURO-CORDEX regional climate model ensemble. Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1543–1569, 2021, doi : 10.5194/esd-12-1543-2021

Reale M., Cabos W., Cavicchia L., Conte D., Coppola E., Flaounas E., F. Giorgi F., Gualdi S., Hochman A., Li L., Lionello P., Podrascanin Z., Salon S., Sanchez-Gomez E., Scoccimarro E., Sein D., Somot S. (2021) Future projections of Mediterranean cyclone characteristics using the Med-CORDEX ensemble of coupled regional climate system models. Clim. Dyn.doi:10.1007/s00382-021-06018-x

Ivusic S., Güttler I., Horvath K., Somot S., Guérémy J.-F., Alias A. (2021) Modelling extreme precipitation over the Dinaric Alps : an evaluation of the CNRM-ALADIN regional climate model. Q J R Meteorol Soc, vol.147, issue.741, p. 4425–4453,

Ban B., Szépszó G., Allaga-Zsebeházi G., Somot S. (2021) ALADIN-Climate at the Hungarian Meteorological Service : from the beginnings to present day’s results. Idojaras, Quaterly Hournal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service. 125:647-673, doi : 10.28974/idojaras.2021.4.6

Drugé T., Nabat P., Mallet M., Somot S. (2021) Future evolution of aerosols and implications for climate change in the Euro-Mediterranean region using the CNRM-ALADIN63 regional climate model. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7639–7669. Special Issue : CHemistry and AeRosols Mediterranean EXperiments (ChArMEx) (ACP/AMT inter-journal SI),

Caillaud C., Somot S., Alias A., Bernard-Bouissières I., Fumière Q., Laurantin O., Seity Y., Ducrocq V. (2021)  Modelling Mediterranean Heavy Precipitation Events at climate scale : an object-oriented evaluation of the CNRM-AROME Convection-Permitting Regional Climate Model. Clim. Dyn., 56:1717–1752, doi : 10.1007/s00382-020-05558-y

Caillaud C., Somot S., Alias A. et al. (2021) Correction to : Modelling Mediterranean heavy precipitation events at climate scale : an object-oriented evaluation of the CNRM-AROME convection-permitting regional climate model. Clim Dyn.

Coppola E., Nogherotto R., Ciarlò J.M., Giorgi F., van Meijgaard E., Kadygrov N., Iles C., Corre L., Sandstad M., Somot S., Nabat P., Vautard R., Levavasseur G., Schwingshackl C., Sillmann J., Kjellström E., Nikulin G., Aalbers E., Lenderink G., Christensen O.B., Boberg F., Lund Sørland S., Demory M.-E., Bülow K., Teichmann C., Warrach-Sagi K., Wulfmeyer V. (2020) Assessment of the European Climate Projections as Simulated by the Large EURO-CORDEX Regional and Global Climate Model Ensemble. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, or pdf

Vautard R., Kadygrov N., Iles C., Boberg F., Buonomo E., Bülow K., Coppola E., Corre L., van Meijgaard E., Nogherotto R., Sandstad M., Schwingshackl C., Somot S., Aalbers E., Christensen O.B., Ciarlo J.M., Demory M.-E., Giorgi F., Jacob D., Jones R.G., Keuler K., Kjellström E., Lenderink G., Levavasseur G., Nikulin G., Sillmann J., Solidoro C., Lund Sørland S., Steger C., Teichmann C., Warrach-Sagi K., Wulfmeyer V. (2021) Evaluation of the large EURO-CORDEX regional climate model ensemble. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres,


Reale M., Salon S., Somot S., Solidoro C., Giorgi F., Crise A., Cossarini G., Lazzari P., Sevault F. (2020) Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns on nutrients dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea in the extended winter season (October-March) 1961-1999. Climate Research, 82:117-136.

Pagès R., Baklouti M., Barrier N., Ayache M., Sevault F., Somot S., Moutin T. (2020) Projected effects of climate-induced changes in hydrodynamics on the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean Sea under the RCP 8.5 regional climate scenario. Front. Mar. Sci., section Global Change and the Future Ocean,

Nabat P., Somot S., Cassou C., Mallet M., Michou M., Bouniol D., Decharme B., Drugé T., Roehrig R., and Saint-Martin D. (2020) Modulation of radiative aerosols effects by atmospheric circulation over the Euro-Mediterranean region. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8315–8349, Special Issue : CHemistry and AeRosols Mediterranean EXperiments (ChArMEx) (ACP/AMT inter-journal SI),

Boé J., Somot S., Corre L., Nabat P. (2020) Large differences in Summer climate change over Europe as projected by global and regional climate models : causes and consequences. Climate Dynamics, 54(5), 2981-3002, doi:10.1007/s00382-020-05153-1, pdf

Gutiérrez C., Somot S., Nabat P., Mallet M., Corre L., van Meijgaard E., Perpiñán O., Gaertner M.A. (2020) Future evolution of surface solar radiation and photovoltaic potential in Europe : investigating the role of aerosols. Environ. Res. Lett., 15 (3), 034035,, pdf

Soto-Navarro J., Jordà G., Amores A., Cabos W., Somot S., Sevault F., Macías D., Djurdjevic V., Sannino G., Li L., Sein D. (2020) Evolution of Mediterranean Sea water properties under climate change scenarios in the Med-CORDEX ensemble. Clim. Dyn, 54, 2135–2165,, pdf, suppl. mat.

Fumière Q., Déqué M., Nuissier O., Somot S., Alias A., Caillaud C., Laurantin O., Seity Y. (2020) Extreme rainfall in Mediterranean France during the fall : added-value of the CNRM-AROME Convection-Permitting Regional Climate Model. Clim. Dyn, 55:77-91, doi:10.1007/s00382-019-04898-8

Jacob D., C. Teichmann, S. Sobolowski, E. Katragkou, I. Anders, M. Belda, R. Benestad, F. Boberg, E. Buonomo, R.M. Cardoso, A. Casanueva, O.B. Christensen, J.H. Christensen, E. Coppola, L. De Cruz, E.L. Davin, A. Dobler, M. Domínguez, R. Fealy, J. Fernandez, M.Á. Gaertner, M. García-Díez, F. Giorgi, A. Gobiet, K. Goergen, J.J. Gómez-Navarro, C. Gutiérrez, J.M. Gutiérrez, I. Güttler, A. Haensler, T. Halenka, S. Jerez, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, R.G. Jones, K. Keuler, E. Kjellström, S. Knist, S. Kotlarski, D. Maraun, E. van Meijgaard, P. Mercogliano, J.P. Montávez, A. Navarra, G. Nikulin, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, H.-J. Panitz, M. Piazza, E. Pichelli, J.-P. Pietikäinen, A.F. Prein, D. Rechid, B. Rockel, R. Romera, E. Sánchez, K. Sieck, P.M.M. Soares, Somot S., L. Srnec, S. Lund Sørland, P. Termonia, H. Truhetz, R. Vautard, K. Warrach-Sagi, V. Wulfmeyer (2020) Regional climate downscaling over Europe : perspectives from the EURO-CORDEX community. Reg. Environ. Change, 20, 51,

Coppola E., Sobolowski S., Pichelli E., Raffaele F., Ahrens B., Anders I., Ban N., Bastin S., Belda M., Belusic D., Caldas-Alvarez A., Margarida Cardoso R., Davolio S., Dobler A., Fernandez J., Fita Borrell L., Fumiere Q., Giorgi F., Goergen K., Guettler I., Halenka T., Heinzeller D., Hodnebrog Ø, Jacob D., Kartsios S., Katragkou E., Kendon E., Khodayar S., Kunstmann H., Knist S., Lavín A., Lind P., Lorenz T., Maraun D., Marelle L., van Meijgaard E., Milovac J., Myhre G., Panitz H.-J., Piazza M., Raffa M., Raub T., Rockel B., Schär C., Sieck K., Soares P.M.M., Somot S., Lidija Srnec L., Stocchi P., Tölle M., Truhetz H., Vautard R., de Vries H., Warrach-Sagi K. (2020) A first-of-its-kind multi-model convection permitting ensemble for investigating convective phenomena over Europe and the Mediterranean. Climate Dynamics, 55, 3–34, doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4521-8.


Darmaraki S., Somot S., Sevault F., Nabat P. (2019b) Past Variability of Mediterranean Sea Marine Heatwaves. GRL, 46, 9813-9823, doi:10.1029/2019GL082933. Special Issue : The CNRM Climate and Earth System Models for CMIP6

Darmaraki S., Somot S., Sevault F., Nabat P., Cabos W., Cavicchia L., Djurdjevic V., Li L., Sannino G., Sein D. (2019a) Future evolution of Marine Heat Waves in the Mediterranean Sea. Climate Dynamics, 53 (3-4):1371-1392, doi : 10.1007/s00382-019-04661-z

Moullec F., Barrier N., Drira S., Guilhaumon F., Marsaleix P., Somot S., Ulses C., Velez L., Shin Y.-J. (2019) An end-to-end model reveals losers and winners in a warming Mediterranean Sea. Front. Mar. Sci., 6:345, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00345

Drugé T., Nabat P., Mallet M., Somot S. (2019) Model simulation of ammonium and nitrate aerosols distribution in the Euro-Mediterranean region and their radiative and climatic effects over 1979-2016. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3707–3731, 2019, Special Issue : CHemistry and AeRosols Mediterranean EXperiments (ChArMEx) (ACP/AMT inter-journal SI)

Dunić N., Vilibić I., Šepić J., Mihanović H., Sevault F., Somot S., Waldman R., Nabat P., Arsouze T., Pennel R., Jordà G., Precali R. (2019) Performance of multi-decadal ocean simulations in the Adriatic Sea. Ocean Modelling, 134, 84-109, doi : 10.1016/j.ocemod.2019.01.006, pdf

Richon C., Dutay J.C., Bopp L., Le Vu B., Orr J., Somot S., Dulac F. (2019) Biogeochemical response of the Mediterranean Sea to the transient SRES-A2 climate change scenario. Biogeosciences, 16, 135-165.

Ribes A., Soulivanh T., Vautard R., Dubuisson B., Somot S., Colin J., Planton S., Soubeyroux J.-M. (2019) Observed increase in extreme daily rainfall in the French Mediterranean. Clim Dyn., 52(1-2), 1095-1114, doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4179-2

Daniel M., Lemonsu A., Déqué M., Somot S., Alias A., Masson V (2019) Benefits of explicit urban parametrization in regional climate modelling to study climate and city interactions. Climate Dynamics, 52(50),2745-2764, doi:10.1007/s00382-018-4289-x


Gutiérrez C., Somot S., Nabat P., Mallet M., Gaertner M.A., Perpiñán O. (2018) Impact of aerosols on the spatiotemporal variability of photovoltaic energy production in the Euro-Mediterranean area. Solar Energy. 174 : 1142-1152,

Tramblay Y., Somot S. (2018) Future evolution of extreme precipitation in the Mediterranean. Climatic Change, 151(2), 289-302,

Somot S., Houpert L., Sevault F., Testor P., Bosse A., Taupier-Letage I., Bouin M.N., Waldman R., Cassou C., Sanchez-Gomez E., Durrieu de Madron X., Adloff F., P. Nabat, Herrmann M. (2018a) Characterizing, modelling and understanding the climate variability of the deep water formation in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. Climate Dynamics, 51(3), 1179-1210, doi : 10.1007/s00382-016-3295-0, Med-CORDEX special issue

Sanchez-Gomez E. and Somot S. (2018) Impact of the internal variability on the cyclone tracks simulated by a regional climate model over the Med-CORDEX domain. Climate Dynamics, 51(3), 1005-1021, doi : 10.1007/s00382-016-3394-y, Med-CORDEX special issue

Adloff F., Jordà G., Somot S., Sevault F., Meyssignac B., Arsouze T., Li L., Planton S. (2018) Improving sea level simulation in Mediterranean regional climate models. Climate Dynamics, 51(3), 1167-1178, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3842-3, Med-CORDEX special issue

Dunić N., Vilibić I., Šepić J., Somot S., Sevault F. (2018) Dense water formation and BiOS induced variability in the Adriatic Sea simulated using an ocean regional circulation model. Climate Dynamics, 51(3), 1211-1236, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3310-5, Med-CORDEX special issue

Gaertner M.A., Gonzalez-Aleman J.J., Romera R., Dominguez M., Gil V., Sanchez E., Gallardo C., Miglietta M.M., Walsh K., Sein D., Somot S., dell’Aquila A., Ahrens B., Colette A., Bastin S., van Meijgaard E., Nikulin G. (2018) Simulation of medicanes over the Mediterranean Sea in a regional climate model ensemble : impact of ocean-atmosphere coupling and increased resolution. Climate Dynamics, 51(3), 1041-1057, doi : 10.1007/s00382-016-3456-1, Med-CORDEX special issue

Flaounas E., Kelemen F., Wernli H., Gaertner M.A., Reale M., Sanchez-Gomez E., Lionello P., Calmanti S., Podrascanin Z., Somot S., Akhtar N., Romera R., Conte D. (2018) Assessment of an ensemble of ocean-atmosphere coupled and uncoupled regional climate models to reproduce the climatology of Mediterranean cyclones. Climate Dynamics, 51(3), 1023-1040, doi : 10.1007/s00382-016-3398-7, Med-CORDEX special issue

Obermann-Hellhund A., Conte D., Somot S., Torma C.Z., Ahrens B. (2018) Mistral and Tramontane wind systems in regional and global climate simulations from 1950 to 2100. Climate Dynamics, 50(1-2):693-703, doi:10.1007/s00382-017-3635-8, Med-CORDEX special issue

Kjellström E., Nikulin G., Strandberg G., Christensen O.B., Jacob D., Keuler K., Lenderink G., van Meijgaard E., Schär C., Somot S., Sorland S.L., Teichmann C., Vautard R. (2018) European climate change at global mean temperature increases of 1.5 and 2°C above pre-industrial conditions as simulated by the EURO-CORDEX regional climate models. Earth Syst. Dynam., 9, 459-478, 2018, Special Issue : The Earth system at a global warming of 1.5°C and 2.0°C

Nikulin G, Lennard C, Dosio A. Kjellström E, Chen Y, Hänsler A, Kupiainen M, Laprise R, Mariotti L, Fox Maule C, van Meijgaard E, Panitz H-J, Scinocca JF and Somot S. (2018) The effects of 1.5 and 2 degrees of global warming on Africa in the CORDEX ensemble. Environ. Res. Lett., doi : 10.1088/1748-9326/aab1b1,

Waldman R., Somot S., Herrmann M., Sevault F., Isachsen P.E. (2018a) On the chaotic variability of deep convection in the Mediterranean Sea. GRL, 45, doi : 10.1002/2017GL076319

Waldman R., Brüggemann N., Bosse A., Sevault F., Somot S., Spall M. (2018b) Overturning the Mediterranean Thermohaline Circulation. GRL, 45(16):8407-8415, doi : 10.1029/2018GL078502, suppl. mat.

Testor P., Bosse A., Houpert L., Margirier F., Mortier L., Lego H., Dausse D., Labaste M., Karstensen J., Hayes D., Olita A., Ribotti A., Schroeder K., Chiggiato J., Onken R., Heslop E., Mourre B., D’Ortenzio F., Mayot N., Lavigne H., de Fommervault O., Coppola L., Prieur L., Taillandier V., Durrieu de Madron X., Bourrin F., Many G., Damien P., Estournel C., Marsaleix P., Taupier-Letage I., Raimbault P. Waldman R., Bouin M.-N., Giordani H., Caniaux G., Somot S., Ducrocq V., Conan P. (2018) Multiscale observations of deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during winter 2012-2013 using multiple platforms. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 123(3), 1745-1776, doi:10.1002/2016JC012671, Special Issue HyMeX-Mermex


Tramblay Y., Jarlan L., Hanich L., Somot S. (2017) Future scenarios for surface water resources availability in North African dams. Water Resources Management (published on line),

Waldman R., Herrmann M., Somot S., Arsouze T., Benshila R., Bosse A., Chanut J., Giordani H., Sevault F., Testor P. (2017b) Impact of the Mesoscale Dynamics on Ocean Deep Convection : The 2012-2013 Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, doi : 10.1002/2016jc012587, Special Issue HyMeX-Mermex

Waldman R., Somot S., Herrmann M., Bosse A., Caniaux G., Estournel C., Houpert L., Prieur L., Sevault F., Testor P. (2017a) Modelling of the intense 2012-2013 dense water formation event in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea : Evaluation with an ensemble simulation approach. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, doi : 10.1002/2016JC012437, Special Issue HyMeX-Mermex

Bador M., Terray L., Boé J., Somot S., Alias A., Gibelin A.-L., Dubuisson B. (2017) Future summer mega-heatwave and record-breaking temperatures in a warmer France climate. ERL, 12(7),


Estournel C., Testor P., Taupier-Letage I., Bouin M.-N., Coppola L., Durand P., Conan P., Bosse A., Brilouet P.-E., Beguery L., Belamari S., Béranger K., Beuvier J., Bourras D., Canut G., Doerenbecher A., Durrieu de Madron X., D’Ortenzio F., Drobinski P., Ducrocq V., Fourrié N., Giordani H., Houpert L., Labatut L., Lebeaupin-Brossier C., Nuret M., Prieur L., Roussot O., Seyfried L, Somot S. (2016) HyMeX-SOP2 : The field campaign dedicated to dense water formation in the northwestern Mediterranean. Oceanography, 29(4):196-206,

Nabat P., Somot S., Mallet M. (2016) Les aérosols, composants essentiels du système climatique régional : Illustrations pour le climat méditerranéen. La Météorologie, soumis (juin 2016). La Météorologie. Numéro 94, 8e série, Août 2016

Waldman R., Somot S., Herrmann M., Testor P., Estournel C., Sevault F., Prieur L., Mortier L., Coppola L., Taillandier V., Conan P., Dausse D. (2016) Estimating dense water volume and its evolution for the year 2012-2013 in the North-western Mediterranean Sea : an Observing System Simulation Experiment approach. JGR-Oceans, 121(9), 6696-6716, doi : 10.1002/2016JC011694, Special Issue HyMeX-MerMex.

Giorgi F., Torma C., Coppola E., Ban N., Schär C., Somot S. (2016) Enhanced summer convective rainfall at Alpine high elevations in response to climate warming. Nature Geoscience, 9, 584–589, doi:10.1038/ngeo2761

Dadou I. ; Sanial V. ; Gueirrero K., Bachèlery M.-L., Chastanet S., Alory G., Somot S. (2016) Reproduire la circulation thermohaline à échelle réduite et comprendre son rôle dans le climat. La Météorologie, 93, May 2016, doi : 10.4267/2042/59937

Hamon M., J. Beuvier, Somot S., J.M. Lellouche, E. Greiner, G. Jordà, M.N. Bouin, T. Arsouze, K. Béranger, F. Sevault, C. Dubois, M. Drévillon, and Y. Drillet (2016) Design and validation of MEDRYS, a Mediterranean Sea reanalysis over 1992-2013. Ocean Sci., 12, 577-599, 2016, doi:10.5194/os-12-577-2016

Mallet, M., Dulac, F., Formenti, P., Nabat, P., Sciare, J., Roberts, G., Pelon, J., Ancellet, G., Tanré, D., Parol, F., Denjean, C., Brogniez, G., di Sarra, A., Alados-Arboledas, L., Arndt, J., Auriol, F., Blarel, L., Bourrianne, T., Chazette, P., Chevaillier, S., Claeys, M., D’Anna, B., Derimian, Y., Desboeufs, K., Di Iorio, T., Doussin, J.-F., Durand, P., Féron, A., Freney, E., Gaimoz, C., Goloub, P., Gómez-Amo, J. L., Granados-Muñoz, M. J., Grand, N., Hamonou, E., Jankowiak, I., Jeannot, M., Léon, J.-F., Maillé, M., Mailler, S., Meloni, D., Menut, L., Momboisse, G., Nicolas, J., Podvin, T., Pont, V., Rea, G., Renard, J.-B., Roblou, L., Schepanski, K., Schwarzenboeck, A., Sellegri, K., Sicard, M., Solmon, F., Somot S., Torres, B, Totems, J., Triquet, S., Verdier, N., Verwaerde, C., Waquet, F., Wenger, J., and Zapf, P. (2016) Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 455-504, doi:10.5194/acp-16-455-2016. Special Issue : CHemistry and AeRosols Mediterranean EXperiments (ChArMEx) (ACP/AMT Inter-Journal SI),

Berthou S., Mailler S., Drobinski P., Arsouze T., Bastin S., Béranger K., Flaounas E., Lebeaupin Brossier C., Somot S., and Stéfanon M. (2016) Where does submonthly air-sea coupling influence heavy precipitation events in the Northwestern Mediterranean ? Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 142(S1), 453-471, doi : 10.1002/qj.2717

Ruti PM, Somot S., Giorgi F, Dubois C, Flaounas E, Obermann A, Dell’Aquila A, Pisacane G, Harzallah A, Lombardi E, Ahrens B, Akhtar N, Alias A, Arsouze T, Aznar R, Bastin S, Bartholy J, Béranger K, Beuvier J, Bouffies-Cloché S, Brauch J, Cabos W, Calmanti S, Calvet J-C, Carillo A, Conte D, Coppola E, Djurdjevic V, Drobinski P, Elizalde-Arellano A, Gaertner M, Galàn P, Gallardo C, Gualdi S, Goncalves M, Jorba O, Jordà G, L’Heveder B, Lebeaupin-Brossier C, Li L, Liguori G, Lionello P, Maciàs D, Nabat P, Onol B, Raikovic B, Ramage K, Sevault F, Sannino G, Struglia MV, Sanna A, Torma C, Vervatis V (2016) MED-CORDEX initiative for Mediterranean Climate studies. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97(7), 1187-1208, doi : 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00176.1, pdf


Albouy C., Ben Rais Lasram F., Guilhaumon F., Velez L., Meynard C., Boyer S., Benestan L., Mouquet N., Douzery E., Aznard R., Troussellier M., Somot S., Leprieur F., Le Loc’h F.,Mouillot D. (2015) FishMed : traits, phylogeny, current and projected species distribution of Mediterranean fishes and environmental data. Ecology, 96, 2312–2313. doi:10.1890/14-2279.1

Mallet M., F. Dulac, P. Nabat, P. Formenti, J. Sciare, G. Roberts, J. Pelon, D. Tanré, F. Parol, G. Ancellet, L. Blarel, T. Bourrianne, G. Brogniez, P. Chazette, S. Chevaillier, M. Claeys, A. Colomb, C. Denjean, Y. Derimian, K. Desboeufs, J.-F. Doussin, P. Durand, A. Féron, H. Ferré, L. Fleury, E. Freney, P. Goloub, N. Grand, E. Hamonou, M. Jeannot, I. Jankowiak, D. Lambert, J-F Léon, L. Menut, G. Monboisse, J. Nicolas, V. Pont, S. Mailler, T. Podvin, F. Solmon, S. Somot, G. Rea, J.-B. Renard, L. Roblou, A. Schwarzenboeck, K. Sellegri, M. Sicard, J. Totems, B. Torres, S. Triquet et N. Verdier (2015) Intéractions aérosols-rayonnement-climat méditerranéen : impact de l’effet radiatif direct sur le cycle de l’eau. La Météorologie. 91, 29-38, Novembre 2015

Nabat P., S. Somot, M. Mallet, M. Michou, F. Sevault, F. Driouech, D. Meloni, A. Di Sarra, C. Di Biagio, P. Formenti, M. Sicard, J.-F. Léon, and M.-N. Bouin (2015b) Dust aerosol radiative effects during summer 2012 simulated with a coupled regional aerosol-atmosphere-ocean model over the Mediterranean. Atm. Chem. Phys., 15, 3303-3326, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3303-2015.

Nabat P., Somot S., Mallet M., Sevault F., Chiacchio M., Wild M. (2015a) Direct and semi-direct aerosol radiative effect on the Mediterranean climate variability using a coupled Regional Climate System Model. Clim. Dyn. 44, 1127-1155, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2205-6,

Adloff F., Somot S., Sevault F., Jordà G., Aznar R., Déqué M., Herrmann M., Marcos M., Dubois C., Padorno E., Alvarez-Fanjul E., Gomis D. (2015) Mediterranean Sea response to climate change in an ensemble of twenty first century scenarios. Climate Dynamics, 45 (9), 2775-2802, doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2507-3.
(August 2016 : Articles published since 2015 and most frequently downloaded since publication)

Palmiéri J., Orr J.C., Dutay J.C., Béranger K., Schneider A., Beuvier J., Somot S. (2015) Simulated anthropogenic CO2 storage and acidification of the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeosciences, 12, 781-802, doi:10.5194/bg-12-781-2015

Soto-Navarro J., Somot S., Sevault F., Beuvier J., Criado-Aldeanueva F., García-Lafuente J., Béranger K. (2015) Evaluation of regional ocean circulation models for the Mediterranean Sea at the strait of Gibraltar : volume transport and thermohaline properties of the outflow. Climate Dynamics, 44, 1277–1292, doi : 10.1007/s00382-014-2179-4

Andrello M., Mouillot D., Somot S., Thuiller W., Manel S. (2015) Additive effects of climate change on connectivity between marine protected areas and larval supply to fished areas. Diversity and Distributions, 21, 139–150. doi : 10.1111/ddi.12250

Houpert L., Testor P., Durrieu de Madron X., Somot S., D’Ortenzio F., Estournel C. Lavigne H. (2015) Seasonal cycle of the mixed layer, the seasonal thermocline and the upper-ocean heat storage rate in the Mediterranean Sea : derived from observations. Progress in Oceanography, 132, 333-352, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.11.004, SI : Oceanography of the Arctic and North Atlantic Basins,

Georgiou, S., Mantziafou, A., Sofianos, S., Gertman, I., Özsoy, E., Somot S., Vervatis, V. (2015) Climate variability and deep water mass characteristics in the Aegean Sea. Atmospheric Research, 152, 146-158, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.07.023

Lucas-Picher P., Riboust P., Somot S., Laprise R. (2015) Reconstruction of the spring 2011 Richelieu River flood by two regional climate models and a hydrological model. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 16(1), 36-54, doi:JHM-D-14-0116


Sevault F., Somot S., Alias A., Dubois C., Lebeaupin-Brossier C., Nabat P., Adloff F., Déqué M. And Decharme B. (2014) Ocean simulation of the 1980-2012 period for the Mediterranean Sea using a fully-coupled atmosphere-land-hydrology-river-ocean Regional Climate System Model : design and evaluation. Tellus A : Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 66(1), 23967 pdf

Nabat P., Somot S., Mallet M., Sanchez-Lorenzo A., Wild M. (2014) Contribution of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to the changing Euro-Mediterranean climate since 1980. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(15), 5605–5611, doi:10.1002/2014GL060798

Hattab T., Albouy C., Lasram F.B.R., Somot S., Leloc’h F., Leprieur F. (2014) Towards a better understanding of potential impacts of climate change on marine species distribution : a multiscale modelling approach. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 1417–1429, DOI : 10.1111/geb.12217

Lemonsu A., Beaulant A.L., Somot S., Masson V. (2014) Evolution of heat wave occurrence over the Paris basin (France) in the 21st century. Climate Research, 61, 75-91, doi:10.3354/cr01235

Auger P.A., Ulses C., Estournel C., Stemman L., Somot S., Diaz F. (2014) Interannual control of plankton ecosystem in a deep convection area as inferred from a 30-year 3D modeling study : winter mixing and prey/predator in the NW Mediterranean. Progress in Oceanography, 124, 12-27, DOI : 10.1016/j.pocean.2014.04.004

Briche E., Beltrando G. Somot S., Quenol H (2014) Critical analysis of simulated daily temperature data from the ARPEGE-Climate model : application to climate change in Champagne wine-producing region. Climatic Change. 123(2), 241-254, doi 10.1007/s10584-013-1044-5

Drobinski P., V. Ducrocq, P. Alpert, E. Anagnostou, K. Béranger, M. Borga, I. Braud, A. Chanzy, S. Davolio, G. Delrieu, C. Estournel, N. Filali Boubrahmi, J. Font, V. Grubisic, S. Gualdi, B. Ivancan-Picek, C. Kottmeier, V. Kotroni, K. Lagouvardos, P. Lionello, M.C. Llasat, W. Ludwig, C. Lutoff, A. Mariotti, E. Richard, R. Romero, R. Rotunno, O. Roussot, I. Ruin, S. Somot, I. Taupier-Letage, J. Tintore, R. Uijlenhoet, H. Wernli (2014) HyMeX : A 10-Year Multidisciplinary Program on the Mediterranean Water Cycle. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 95(7), 1063–1082, doi : 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00242.1

Pascual A., Vidal-Vijande E., Ruiz S., Somot S., Papadopoulos V. (2014) Spatio-temporal variability of the surface circulation in the Western Mediterranean : a comparative study using altimetry and modeling. In The Mediterranean Sea : Temporal Variability and Spatial Patterns, Geophysical Monograph 202. Eds. Borzelli G.L.E., M. Gacic, P. Lionello, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, American Geophysical Union (First Edition). ISBN-10 : 1118847342

Lamon L., Rizzi J., Bonaduce A., Dubois C., Lazzari O., Ghenim L., Gana S., Somot S., Li L., Melaku Kanu D., Solidoro C., Pinardi N., Marcomini A. (2014) An ensemble of models for identifying climate change scenarios in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Regional Environmental Change (Special issue, February 2014). 14(1), S31-S40. doi : 10.1007/s10113-013-0430-x


Drobinski P., Ducrocq V., Bastin S., Bélamari S., Béranger K., Bock O., Boudevillain B., Bouin M.N., Braud I., Calvet J.C. Chanzy A., Coppola L., Courault D., Delrieu G., Estournel C., Flamant C., Giordani H., Labatut L., Lutoff C., Martin E., Mahfouf J.M., Mastrorillo L., Orain F., Ramage K., Richard E., Roujean J.L., Roussot O., Ruin I., Somot S., Taupier-Letage I., Testor P., Ludwig W. (2013) HyMeX, le cycle de l’eau méditerranéen à la loupe. La Météorologie, n.80, page 23-36, février 2013

Tramblay Y., Ruelland D., Somot S., Bouaicha R., Servat E. (2013) High-resolution Med-CORDEX regional climate model simulations for hydrological impact studies : a first evaluation of the ALADIN-Climate model in Morocco. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3721-3739,doi:10.5194/hess-17-3721-2013 (

Jacob D., Petersen J., Eggert B., Alias A., Christensen O.B., Bouwer L., Braun A., Colette A., Déqué M., Georgievski G., Georgopoulou E., Gobiet A., Menut L., Nikulin G., Haensler A., Hempelmann N., Jones C., Keuler K., Kovats S., Kröner N., Kotlarski S., Kriegsmann A., Martin E., van Meijgaard E., Moseley C., Pfeifer S., Preuschmann S., Radtke K., Rechid D., Rounsevell M., Samuelsson P., Somot S., Soussana J.-F., Teichmann C., Valentini R., Vautard R., Weber B. And Yiou P. (2013) EURO-CORDEX : New high-resolution climate change projections for European impact research. Regional Environmental Change (on-line in July 2013) doi : 10.1007/s10113-013-0499-2

Nabat P., S. Somot, M. Mallet, I. Chiapello, J.-J. Morcrette, F. Solmon, S. Szopa, F. Dulac, W. Collins, S. Ghan, L.W. Horowitz, J.F. Lamarque, Y.H. Lee, V. Naik, T. Nagashima, D. Shindell, R. Skeie (2013) A 4-D climatology (1979-2009) of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1287-1314, doi:10.5194/amt-6-1287-2013

Vervatis, V. D., S. S. Sofianos, N. Skliris, S. Somot, A. Lascaratos, and M. Rixen (2013), Mechanisms controlling the thermohaline circulation pattern variability in the Aegean-Levantine region. A hindcast simulation (1960-2000) with an eddy resolving model, Deep-Sea Research Part I, 74:82-97, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.12.011

Durrieu de Madron X., Houpert L., Sanchez-Vidal A., Puig P., Testor P., Estournel C., Somot S., Bourrin F., Canals M., Palanques A., Mortier L., Bouin M.N., Heussner S., Calafat A., Martin J., Font J., Kunesch S., Raimbault P. (2013) Interaction of deep dense shelf water cascading and open-sea convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean in winter 2012
Geophysical Research Letters, 40, 1–7, doi:10.1002/grl.50331

Gualdi S., S. Somot, W. May, S. Castellari, M. Déqué, M. Adani, V. Artale, A. Bellucci, J. S. Breitgand, A. Carillo, R. Cornes, A. Dell’Aquila, C. Dubois, D. Efthymiadis, A. Elizalde, L. Gimeno, C. M. Goodess, A. Harzallah, S. O. Krichak, F. G. Kuglitsch, G. C. Leckebusch, B. L’Heveder, L. Li, P. Lionello, J. Luterbacher, A. Mariotti, A. Navarra, R. Nieto, K. M. Nissen, P. Oddo, P. Ruti, A. Sanna, G. Sannino, E. Scoccimarro, F. Sevault, M. V. Struglia, A. Toreti, U. Ulbrich and E. Xoplaki (2013b) Future Climate Projections, In : Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean, Volume 1. Eds. Navarra, A., and L. Tubiana, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 53-118.

Sofianos S., V. Vervatis, N. Skliris, S. Somot, A. Lascaratos and A. Mantziafou (2013), Climate variability and water mass formation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, Springer Atmospheric Sciences, Advances in Meteorology, Climatology and Atmospheric Physics, Part 2, pages 729-735, doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-29172-2.

L’Heveder B., Li L., Sevault F., Somot S. (2013) Interannual variability of deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean simulated with a coupled AORCM. Climate Dyn., 41:937-960. doi : 10.1007/s00382-012-1527-5

Albouy C., Guilhaumon F., Leprieur F., Lasram F.B.R., Somot S., Aznar R, Velez L., Leloc’h F., Mouillot D. (2013) Projected climate change and the changing biogeography of coastal Mediterranean fishes. Journal of Biogeography, 40(3):534-547, doi : 10.1111/jbi.12013

Lucas-Picher P., Somot S., Déqué M., Decharme B., Alias A. (2013) Evaluation of the regional climate model ALADIN to simulate the climate over North America in the CORDEX framework. Clim. Dyn, 41(5-6):1117-1137, doi : 10.1007/s00382-012-1613-8

Gualdi S., S. Somot, L. Li, V. Artale, M. Adani, A. Bellucci, A. Braun, S. Calmanti, A. Carillo, A. Dell’Aquilla, M. Déqué, C. Dubois, A. Elizalde, A. Harzallah, B. Lheveder, W. May, P. Oddo, P. Ruti, A. Sanna, G. Sannino, E. Scoccimarro, F. Sevault and A. Navarra (2013a) The CIRCE simulations : a new set of regional climate change projections performed with a realistic representation of the Mediterranean Sea. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 94, 65-81, DOI 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00136.1


Nabat, P., Solmon, F., Mallet, M., Kok, J. F., and Somot, S (2012) : Dust emission size distribution impact on aerosol budget and radiative forcing over the Mediterranean region : a regional climate model approach, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10545-10567, doi:10.5194/acp-12-10545-2012, 2012.

Szczypta C., Decharme B., Carrer D., Calvet J.-C., Lafont S., Somot S., Faroux S., and Martin E. (2012) Impact of precipitation and land biophysical variables on the simulated discharge of European and Mediterranean rivers. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 3351-3370, doi:10.5194/hess-16-3351-2012

Vrac M., Drobinski P., Merlo A., Herrmann M., Lavaysse C., Li L., Somot S. (2012) Dynamical and statistical downscaling of the French Mediterranean climate : uncertainty assessment. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. : 12, 2769-2784, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-2769-2012

Beuvier J., Béranger K., Lebeaupin-Brossier C., Somot S., Sevault F., Drillet Y., Bourdallé-Badie R., Ferry N., Lyard F. (2012) Spreading of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water after winter 2005 : time scales and deep cyclone transport. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans. doi:10.1029/2011JC007679

Solé J., Ruiz S., Pascual A., Somot S., Tintoré J. (2012) Ocean color response to wind forcing in the Alboran Sea : a new forecasting method. J. Mar. Syst. Vol 98-99:1-8. Doi : 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.02.007.

Papadopoulos V.P., S. Josey ; A. Bartzokas ; S. Somot ; S. Ruiz ; P. Drakopoulou (2012) Large scale atmospheric circulation favoring deep and intermediate water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. J. Climate, 25 (18) : 6079–6091, doi : 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00657.1

Dubois C., S. Somot, S. Calmanti, A. Carillo, M. Déqué, A. Dell’Aquilla, A. Elizalde-Arellano, S. Gualdi, D. Jacob, B. Lheveder, L.Li, P. Oddo, G. Sannino, E. Scoccimarro, F. Sevault (2012) Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models, Clim. Dyn. 39 (7-8):1859-1884. DOI 10.1007/s00382-011-1261-4.

Jordà G., D. Gomis, E. Álvarez-Fanjul, S. Somot (2012) Atmospheric contribution to Mediterranean and nearby Atlantic sea level under different climate change scenarios. Global and Planetary Change : 80-81, 198-214, doi : 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.10.013

Schroeder K., Garcìa-Lafuente J., Josey S., Artale V., Buongiorno-Nardelli B., Gacic M., Gasparini G.P., Herrmann M., Lionello P., Ludwig W., Millot C., Ozsoy E., Pisacane G., Sanchez-Garrido J.C., Sannino G., Santoleri R., Somot S., Struglia M., Stanev E., Taupier-Letage I., Tsimplis M., Vargas-Yanez M., Zervakis V., Zodiatis G. (2012) Circulation of the Mediterranean Sea and its variability (Chapter 4) In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Ed. Lionello, P, Elsevier, pp. 187-256

Planton S., Lionello P., Artale V., Aznar R., Carillo A., Colin J., Congedi L., Dubois C., Elizalde Arellano A., Gualdi S., Hertig E., Jordà Sanchez G., Li L., Jucundus J., Piani C., Ruti P., Sanchez-Gomez E., Sannino G., Sevault F., Somot S. (2012) The climate of the Mediterranean region in future climate projections (chapter 8) In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Ed. Lionello, P, Elsevier, pp. 449-502

Li L., Casado A., Dell’Aquila A., Dubois C., Elizalde A., L’Hévéder B., Lionello P., Sevault F., Somot S., Ruti P., Zampieri M. (2012) Modelling of the Mediterranean climate system (chapter 7) In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Ed. Lionello, P, Elsevier, pp. 419-448

Tsimplis M.N., F. Raicich, L. Fenoglio-Marc, A. G.P. Shaw, M. Marcos, S. Somot and A. Bergamasco (2012) Recent developments in understanding sea level rise at the Adriatic coasts. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. Vol. 40-41, page 59-71.
Special Issue of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C : “Venetia and Northern Adriatic Climate” (Ed. P.Lionello), ISSN 1474-7065, DOI : 10.1016/j.pce.2009.11.007

Déqué M., Somot S., Sanchez-Gomez E., Goodess C.M., Jacob D., Lenderink G., O.B. Christensen O.B. (2012) “The spread amongst ENSEMBLES regional scenarios : Regional Climate Models, driving General Circulation Models and interannual variability”, Clim. Dyn., 38:5-6, pp. 951-964, DOI : 10.1007/s00382-011-1053-x


Herrmann M., Somot S., Calmanti S., Dubois C., Sevault F. (2011) Representation of daily wind speed spatial and temporal variability and intense wind events over the Mediterranean Sea using dynamical downscaling : impact of the regional climate model configuration, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1983-2001, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-1983-2011

Meyssignac B., Calafat F., Somot S., Rupolo V., Stocchi P., Llovel W., Cazenave A. (2011) Two-dimensional reconstruction of the Mediterranean sea level over 1970-2006 from tide gauge data and regional ocean circulation model outputs. Global and Planetary Change, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.03.002

Josey, S. A., S. Somot, and M. Tsimplis (2011), Impacts of atmospheric modes of variability on Mediterranean Sea surface heat exchange, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C02032, doi:10.1029/2010JC006685.

Sanchez-Gomez E., Somot S., Josey S.A., Dubois C., Elguindi N., Déqué M. (2011) “Evaluation of the Mediterranean Sea Water and Heat budgets as simulated by an ensemble of high resolution Regional Climate Models” Clim. Dyn., 37:2067-2086, doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1012-6

Beaulant A.-L., Joly B., Nuissier O., Somot S., Ducrocq V., Joly A., Sevault F., Déqué M., Ricard D. (2011) Statistico-dynamical downscaling for Mediterranean heavy precipitation, QJRMS, 137(656), 736-748, doi : 10.1002/qj.796

Elguindi N., Somot S., Déqué M., Ludwig W. (2011) “Climate change evolution of the hydrological balance of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas : impact of climate model resolution” Clim. Dyn., 36 (1-2), 205-228, doi : 10.1007/s00382-009-0715-4


Herrmann M., Sevault F., Beuvier J., Somot S. (2010) What induced the exceptional 2005 convection event in the Northwestern Mediterranean basin ? Answers from a modeling study. JGR-O, 115 (C12), doi:10.1029/2010JC006162

Coll M., Chiara Piroddi, Jeroen Steenbeek, Kristin Kaschner, Frida Ben Rais Lasram, Jacopo Aguzzi, Enric Ballesteros, Carlo Nike Bianchi, Jordi Corbera, Thanos Dailianis, Roberto Danovaro, Marta Estrada, Carlo Froglia, Bella S. Galil, Josep M. Gasol, Ruthy Gertwagen, João Gil, François Guilhaumon, Kathleen Kesner-Reyes, Miltiadis-Spyridon Kitsos, Athanasios Koukouras, Nikolaos Lampadariou, Elijah Laxamana, Carlos M. López-Fé de la Cuadra, Heike K. Lotze, Daniel Martin, David Mouillot, Daniel Oro, Saša Raicevich, Josephine Rius-Barile, Jose Ignacio Saiz-Salinas, Carles San Vicente, Samuel Somot, José Templado, Xavier Turon, Dimitris Vafidis, Roger Villanueva, Eleni Voultsiadou (2010) “Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea : status, patterns & threats”, PlosOne, 5(8), e11842, pdf

Colin J., Déqué M., Radu R., Somot S. (2010) Sensitivity study of heavy precipitations in Limited Area Model climate simulation : influence of the size of the domain and the use of the spectral nudging technique. Tellus-A, 62(5), 591-604, doi : 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2010.00467.x

Déqué, M., and S. Somot (2010) : Weighted frequency distributions express modelling uncertainties in the ENSEMBLES regional climate experiments, Climate Research, 44(2-3):195-209, doi:10.3354/cr00866

Aznar R., M.G. Sotillo, M.L. Martín, S. Somot, F. Valero (2010) “Comparison of model and satellite-derived long-term precipitation databases over the Mediterranean basin : a general overview” Atmospheric Research, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.03.026

Beuvier J., F. Sevault, M. Herrmann, H. Kontoyiannis, W. Ludwig, M. Rixen, E. Stanev, K. Béranger, S. Somot (2010) Modelling the Mediterranean Sea interannual variability over the last 40 years : focus on the EMT, JGR-Ocean, 115, C08017, doi:10.1029/2009JC005950.

Ben Rais Lasram F., Guilhaumon F., Albouy C., Somot S., Thuiller W., Mouillot, D. (2010) The Mediterranean Sea as a “cul-de-sac” for endemic fishes facing climate change, Global Change Biology, doi : 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02224.x

Farda, A., M. Déqué, S. Somot, A. Horanyi, V.Spiridonov, H. Toth (2010) The ALADIN Model as Regional Climate Model for Central and Eastern Europe, Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 54 (2), 313-332, doi : 10.1007/s11200-010-0017-7


Tsimplis M.N., F. Raicich, L. Fenoglio-Marc, A. G.P. Shaw, M. Marcos, S. Somot and A. Bergamasco (2009) Recent developments in understanding sea level rise at the Adriatic coasts. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (in press). Special Issue of Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Parts A/B/C : “Venetia and Northern Adriatic Climate” (Ed. P.Lionello), Available online 18 November 2009, ISSN 1474-7065, DOI : 10.1016/j.pce.2009.11.007

Sanchez-Gomez E., Somot S., Mariotti A. (2009) “Future changes in the Mediterranean water budget projected by an ensemble of Regional Climate Models” Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L21401, doi:10.1029/2009GL040120

Ricard D., Beaulant A.L., Boé J., Déqué D., Ducrocq V., Joly A., Joly B., Martin E., Nuissier O., Quintana Seguí P., Ribes A., Sevault F., Somot S. (2009) Impact du changement climatique sur les événements de pluie intense du bassin Méditerranéen. La Météorologie, Projet CYPRIM, Partie II, n.67, Nov.2009, page 19-30.

Tsimplis M., Marcos M., Colin, J., Somot S., Pascual A., Shaw A.G.P. (2009) Sea level variability in the Mediterranean Sea during the 1990s on the basis to two 2d and one 3d model. Journal of Marine Systems, 78 (1) : 109-123, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.04.003

Kostopoulou E., K. Tolika, I. Tegoulias, C. Giannakopoulos, S. Somot, C. Anagnostopoulou and P. Maheras (2009) Evaluation of a regional climate model using in-situ temperature observations over the Balkan Peninsula. Tellus A, 61(3) : 357-370, doi : 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2009.00389.x

SanchezGomez E., S. Somot, M. Déqué (2009) Ability of an ensemble of regional climate models to reproduce the weather regimes during the period 1961-2000. Clim. Dyn., 33 (5), 723-736, doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0502-7


Somot S. , Sevault F., Déqué M., Crépon M. (2008) 21st century climate change scenario for the Mediterranean using a coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Regional Climate Model. Global and Planetary Change, 63(2-3), pp. 112-126, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.10.003

Déqué, M., Somot, S. (2008) Extreme precipitation and high resolution with Aladin. Idöjaras Quaterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorological Service, 112(3-4):179-190, pdf

Herrmann, M., Estournel, C., Déqué, M., Marsaleix, P., Sevault, F., Somot, S. (2008b) Dense water formation in the Gulf of Lion shelf : impact of atmospheric interannual variability and climate change. Continental Shelf Research 28 (15) : 2092-2112, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2008.03.003

Herrmann, M. J., and S. Somot (2008) Relevance of ERA40 dynamical downscaling for modeling deep convection in the Mediterranean Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04607, doi:10.1029/2007GL032442

Herrmann M., Somot S., Sevault F., Estournel C., Déqué M. (2008a) Modeling the deep convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea using an eddy-permitting and an eddy-resolving model : case study of the 1986-87 winter. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C04011, doi:10.1029/2006JC003991

Radu, R., Déqué, M., Somot, S. (2008) Spectral nudging in a spectral regional climate model. Tellus. 60A(5):885-897. doi : 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2008.00343.x

Tsimplis M., Marcos M., Somot S. (2008a) 21st century Mediterranean sea level rise : steric and atmospheric pressure contributions from a regional model. Global and Planetary Change, 63(2-3) : 105-111, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.09.006

Tsimplis, M., Marcos, M., Somot, S., Barnier, B. (2008b) The forcing of the sea level in the Mediterranean Sea between 1960-2000. Global and Planetary Change, doi : 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.07.004


Christensen, J.H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R.K. Kolli, W.-T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V. Magaña Rueda, L. Mearns, C.G. Menéndez, J. Räisänen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr and P. Whetton (2007) : Regional Climate Projections. In : Climate Change 2007 : The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. (contributing author : S. Somot)

Jacob D., Bärring L., Christensen O.B., Christensen J.H., de Castro M., Déqué M., Giorgi F., Hagemann S., Hirschi M., Jones R., Kjellström E., Lenderink G., Rockel B., Sànchez E.S., Schär C., Seneviratne S.I., Somot S., van Ulden A., van den Hurk B. (2007) An inter-comparison of regional climate models for Europe : Design of the experiments and model performance. Climatic Change, 81, suppl. 1, pp 31-52, doi : 10.1007/s10584-006-9213-4


Somot S., F. Sevault, M. Déqué (2006) Transient climate change scenario simulation of the Mediterranean Sea for the 21st century using a high-resolution ocean circulation model. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-006-0167-z , 27 (7-8), 851-879, pdf

Li L., Bozec A., S. Somot, K. Béranger, P. Bouruet-Aubertot, F. Sevault, M. Crépon (2006) Regional atmospheric, marine processes and climate modelling (chapter 7). In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Lionello, P. and Malanotte, P. and Boscolo, R.(eds), Elsevier B.V., pp. 373-397

Ulbrich U., W. May, P. Lionello, J.G. Pinto, S. Somot (2006) The Mediterranean Climate Change Under Global Warming (chapter 8). In : Mediterranean Climate Variability, Lionello, P. and Malanotte, P. and Boscolo, R.(eds), Elsevier B.V., pp.399-415


Somot S. (2005) Modélisation climatique du bassin méditerranéen : variabilité et scénarios de changement climatique. Ph-D thesis. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse.
(pdf, 25 Mo)

Somot S. (2005) Régionalisation des scénarios de changement climatique. Environnement, Risque et Santé, vol.4, n°2, 89-94 (somot_ERS2005.pdf)


Royer J.-F., D. Cariolle, F. Chauvin, M. Déqué, H. Douville, S. Planton, A. Rascol, J.-L. Ricard, D. Salas y Melia, F. Sevault, P. Simon, S. Somot, S. Tyteca, L. Terray, S. Valcke (2002) Simulation of climate changes during the 21-st century including stratospheric ozone C.R. Géosciences, Vol. 334, n°3, 147-154

 Other Publications :


S. Somot, Contributing Author in Gutiérrez, J. M., R. G. Jones, G. T. Narisma, L. M. Alves, M. Amjad, I. V. Gorodetskaya, M. Grose, N. A. B. Klutse, S. Krakovska, J. Li, D. Martínez-Castro, L. O. Mearns, S. H. Mernild, T. Ngo-Duc, B. van den Hurk, J-H. Yoon, (2021), Atlas. In : Climate Change 2021 : The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S. L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M. I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J. B. R. Matthews, T. K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In Press.

Tramblay Y., Ribes A., Somot S, Neppel L., Lucas-Picher P., Vinet F., Sauquet E. (2021) Impacts du changement climatique sur les pluies intenses et les crues en méditerranée, LHB, 107:1, 1-5, doi : 10.1080/00186368.2021.1912971


Cherif S, Doblas-Miranda E, Lionello P, Borrego C, Giorgi F, Iglesias A, Jebari S, Mahmoudi E, Moriondo M, Pringault O, Rilov G, Somot S, Tsikliras A, Vila M, Zittis G (2020) Drivers of change. In : Climate and Environmental Change in the Mediterranean Basin – Current Situation and Risks for the Future. First Mediterranean Assessment Report [Cramer W, Guiot J, Marini K (eds.)] Union for the Mediterranean, Plan Bleu, UNEP/MAP, Marseille, France, pp. 59-180.. link to the pdf


Somot S., Ruti P., Ahrens B., Coppola E., Jordà G., Sannino G., Solmon F. (2018b) Editorial for the Med-CORDEX special issue. Clim. Dyn., 51(3):771-777, doi : 10.1007/s00382-018-4325-x


Déqué M., Alias A., Somot S., Nuissier O. (2016) Climate change and extreme precipitation : the response by a convection-resolving model. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.46 (available here1 or here2)

Somot S., Jordà G., Harzallah A., Darmaraki S. (2016) The Mediterranean Sea in the future climate projections (sub-chapter 1.2.3). In : The Mediterranean region under climate change : A scientific Update, Editor : IRD edition, Marseille 2016, ISBN : 978-2-7099-2219-7
This book, coordinated by AllEnvi, is published on the occasion of the 22nd Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP22, Marrakech, 2016)


Adloff et al. (2015) « Réchauffement climatique et mer Méditerranée ». Encyclopedia Universalis, collection « La science au présent »


Somot S., Ruti P. and the Med-CORDEX group (2014) Med-CORDEX : a first coordinated inter-comparison of fully-coupled regional climate system models (RCSM) for the Mediterranean. Workshop Proceedings. 3Rd International Lund Regional-Scale Climate Modelling Workshop. 21St Century Challenges in Regional Climate Modelling, Lund, Sweden, 16-19 June 2014. International Baltic Earth Secretariat Publication No. 3, June 2014, pp 65-66. ISSN 2198-4247


Bensoussan N., Garreau P., Pairaud I., Somot S., Garrabou J. (2013) Multidisciplinary approach to assess potential risk of mortality of benthic ecosystems facing climate change in the NW Mediterranean Sea. MTS/IEEE Oceans Conference Publications, 1-7, San Diego, CA, USA, SEP 23-27, 2013

Sevault F., Somot S., Alias A., Dubois C., Lebeaupin-Brossier C., Nabat P., Adloff F., Déqué M. (2013) A numerical simulation of the 1980-2011 ERA-Interim period for the Mediterranean with the regional climate system model CNRM-RCSM4. Note de centre n°31. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. September 2013

Déqué M. and Somot S. (2013) Climate change on small islands. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.43. (available here)


Beuvier J, C. Lebeaupin Brossier, K. Béranger, T. Arsouze, R. Bourdallé-Badie, C. Deltel, Y. Drillet, P. Drobinski, N. Ferry, F. Lyard, F. Sevault and S. Somot (2012) MED12, oceanic component for the modeling of the regional Mediterranean earth system, Mercator Ocean Quaterly Newsletter #46, Special Issue NEMO-MyOcean, Novembre 2012.

Somot S. “New climate modelling and new climate analysis tools” CLIM-RUN Newsletter #2, July 2012

Gomis D., Marcos M., Jordà G., Calafat F.M., Martinez A., Llasses J., Alvarez-Fanjul E., Aznar R., Sotillo M.G., Gomez M., Perez B., Padorno E., Sanchez J.C., Rodriguez-Gonzalez J.M, Ramos D., Conde J., Rodriguez-Camino E., Somot S., Tsimplis M. (2012) Escenarios climaticos marinos en el entorno de la Peninsula Iberica : Investigadores de los proyectos VANIMEDAT-2 y ESCENARIOS. RSEF Temas de Fisica [Spanish Journal of Physics], Vol 26-2, Abril-Junio 2012,

Future Heat Waves over Paris Metropolitan Area
A. L. Beaulant, A. Lemonsu, S. Somot and V. Masson National Security and Human Health Implications of Climate Change. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C : Environmental Security, 2012, 135-145, DOI : 10.1007/978-94-007-2430-3_12


Dubois C., Sanchez-Gomez E., Braun A., Somot S. (2010) A gathering of observed air-sea surface fluxes over the Mediterranean Sea. Note de centre n°113. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. Août 2010

Sanchez-Gomez E., Somot S. (2010) Study of the Mediterranean Sea Water and Heat budgets simulated by an ensemble of high resolution Regional Climate Models. Note de centre n°112. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. Janvier 2010.


Déqué M., Somot S., Sanchez-Gomez E. (2009) Analysis of variance of ENSEMBLES regional scenarios. Note de centre n°108. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. Août 2009

Somot S., Sevaut F., Déqué M. (2009) Design and first simulation with a tri-coupled AORCM dedicated to the Mediterranean study. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.39. (available here)

Sevault F., Somot S., Beuvier J. (2009) A regional version of the NEMO ocean engine on the Mediterranean Sea : NEMOMED8 user’s guide. Note de centre n°107. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. mai 2009


Hallegatte S., S. Somot, and H. Nassopoulos, 2008. Anticiper le Changement Climatique autour de la Méditerrannée, Institut de Prospective Economique du Monde Méditerranéen, 76pp.

Beuvier J., F. Sevault, Somot S. (2008) Modélisation de la variabilité interannuelle de la mer Méditerranée sur la période 1960-2000 à l’aide de NEMOMED8. Note de centre n°105. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. septembre 2008

Déqué M., S. Somot (2008) Added value of high resolution for ALADIN Regional Climate Model. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.38. (available here)

Somot S., Colin, J. (2008) First step towards a multi-decadal high-resolution Mediterranean sea reanalysis using dynamical downscaling of ERA40. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.38. (available here)


Déqué M., S. Somot (2007) Variable resolution versus limited area modelling : perfect model approach. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.37. April 2007. pages 3-03,3-04 (available here)

Martin, E., Ducrocq, V., Joly, A., Joly, B., Nuissier, O., Quintana-Segui, P., Ricard, D., Sevault, F., Somot, S., Drobinski, P. (2007) La Méditerranée, région témoin : de CYPRIM à HyMEx / The Mediterranean area : projects CYPRIM and HyMEx. Proceedings (8 pages) Congrès SHF - 29ème journée de l’hydraulique : "Variations climatiques et hydrologie", Lyon, 27-28 mars 2007. La Houille Blanche, n°6/2007, 90-96.


Sevault F., S. Somot, M. Déqué (2006) Vers un scénario couplé régional de la Méditerranée au 21ème siècle. Proceedings des Atelier Modélisation Atmosphérique, CNRM Ed., Toulouse, janvier 2006

Li L., A. Bozec, S. Somot (2006) Modelling regional-scale climate change of the Mediterranean. Contribution to CLIVAR newsletter EXCHANGES.


Somot S., F. Sevault (2005) Climate Change impact on the Mediterranean sea circulation : A regional modelling approach. Note de centre n°95. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. février 2005 (somot_sevault_2005.pdf, figures available on demand)

Sevault F., S. Somot (2005) Le modèle OPA-Méditerranée forcé par les flux et la température de surface de la réanalyse ERA40 du CEP. Note de centre n°94. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. janvier 2005 (

Somot S. (2005) contribution au rapport final du projet européen PRUDENCE (p. 135-140) : publié et disponible sur

Somot S. (2005) contribution au rapport final du projet GICC-MedWater : publié et disponible sur


Sevault F., S. Somot, M. Déqué (2004) Climate Change Scenario for the Mediterranean Sea. Proceedings Ocean Ops 04 (sevault_somot_deque_2004.pdf)

Déqué M., F. Sevault, S. Somot (2004) Mediterranean convection and climate change. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.34. April 2004. WMO/TD-No.1220 (available here)


Somot S., F. Sevault, M. Déqué (2003) Scénario d’évolution de la mer Méditerranée pour le XXIième siècle. Proceedings des Atelier Modélisation Atmosphérique, 141-144, CNRM Ed., Toulouse, décembre 2003(somot_AMA2003.pdf)

Somot S. (2003) Water Mass Analysis in the Mediterranean Sea. Rapport de stage de fin d’études de l’ENM, n°855. Encadrement : Pr. Keith Haines (ESSC), University of Reading, ESSC, janvier-juin 2003 (disponible à l’Ecole Nationale de la Météorologie) (

Sevault F., M. Déqué, S. Somot (2003) Scénario d’évolution de la mer Méditerranée pour le XXIième siècle : le modèle OPA-Méditerranée forcé par Arpège-Climat. Note de centre n°87. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. mars 2003 (sevault_somot_deque_2003.pdf)

Déqué M., F. Sevault, S. Somot : Impact of an IPCC-B2 scenario on Mediterranean sea temperature. Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modelling. CAS/JSC Working group on numerical experimentation. Report No.33. April 2003. WMO/TD-No.1161 (available here)


Somot S. (2002) Impact des fleuves sur la circulation en Méditerranée : Approche par la modélisation. Rapport de stage de modélisation de l’ENM, Encadrement : Michel Déqué (CNRM/GMGEC/EAC). juin-juillet 2002 (disponible à l’Ecole Nationale de la Météorologie) (

Somot S. (2002) Caractérisation du climat méditerranéen à partir de données observées et capacité des modèles climatiques régionaux à reproduire ce climat. Rapport de stage de climatologie de l’ENM, Encadrement : Jean-Marc Moisselin (Direction de la Climatologie, Division Développement) et Michel Déqué (CNRM/GMGEC/EAC). octobre-novembre 2002 (disponible à l’Ecole Nationale de la Météorologie) (

Sevault F., S. Somot, M. Déqué (2002) Couplage Arpège-médias - OPA-Méditerranée : Les étapes. Note de centre n°84. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. mai 2002 (sevault_somot_deque_2002.pdf)


Somot S., F. Sevault, H. Douville, M. Déqué (2001) Etude hydrologique de la mer Noire et paramétrisation des échanges avec la mer Egée. Note de centre n°74. Groupe de Météorologie de Grande Echelle et Climat. CNRM. mars 2001 (

 My last conferences

Since 2000, I have given more than 160 communications in national and international conferences including 39 invited communications. Below, you can find some of them including the pdf :


Somot S. (2022) CORDEX au CNRM : bilan et perspective. Journées CLIMERI. Journée CLIMERI-France 2020. 3-4 Février 2022. Virtual workshop


Somot S. (2021) Med-CORDEX : une initiative internationale de modélisation post-MISTRALS. SIMED workshop. Oral. 29-30 nov 2021. Toulouse (France). pdf

Somot S. (2021) The Med-CORDEX data : opportunities for the MEDCYCLONES COST initiative. WG2 meeting on MEDCYCLONES and climate modelling. Oral. 25 oct 2021. Virtual workshop.pdf

Somot S. (2021) Blending the EUCP approaches : observational constraint, spatial merging and storyline. EUCP-WP5 Storyline virtual workshop. Oral. 29 sept 2021. pdf

Somot S. (2021) EUCP-WP5 (T5.4) Spatial Merging:A common protocol to compare approaches targeting to emulate RCM and CPM results. EUCP General Assembly (Virtual workshop), May 2021 (Oral)

Somot S. (2021) The Med-CORDEX phase 2 baseline runs : a quick update. Med-CORDEX FPS-airsea workshop. Tuesday 30th March 2021. Visio (Oral)

Somot S. (2021) Spatial merging activity in EUCP-WP5 : where we are, where we go, EUCP-WP5 on-line meeting, 16 February 2021 (Oral)

Sobolowski S., Somot S. et al. (2021) Euro-CORDEX CMIP6 GCM selection and Ensemble/Matrix Design. Annual meeting Euro-CORDEX, Hamburg (Germany), 25-28 Janvier 2021 (Oral in duo)


Somot S. (2020) Med-CORDEX : club international de modélisateurs du climat pour l’étude de la Méditerranée. Conférence Méditerranée : L’expertise scientifique pour les décideurs. 16-18 décembre 2020 (en ligne, poster, pdf)

Somot S. (2020) GCM-RCM conflicting messages in the provision of future climate change information : illustrations for Europe. Virtual International Workshop – Advancing Research for Regional Climate Information, 29 June – 2 July 2020 (Oral, sollicited), pdf,
Recorded version on loom

Somot S. (2020) EUCP-WP5, Task 5.4, Spatial Merging : concept and definition, EUCP General Assembly (Virtual workshop), 9-12 March 2020 (Oral)

Somot S. (2020) Impact of the aerosol forcing on the future climate change projections over Europe. Annual meeting Euro-CORDEX, Hamburg (Germany), 29-31 Janvier 2020 (Oral), pdf

Somot S. (2020) CORDEX-FPS aerosol : first results and recommendations for the Euro-CORDEX simulation protocol. Annual meeting Euro-CORDEX, Hamburg (Germany), 29-31 Janvier 2020 (Oral, sollicited), pdf


Somot S. (2019) Un nouveau jeu de forçage atmosphérique pour les simulations océaniques climatiques en Méditerranée : ALDERA version 2. Réunion SiMed. 6th Med-CORDEX Workshop - Toulouse (France) - 25-29th November 2019 (oral), pdf

Somot S. (2019) Med-CORDEX achievements so far, current objectives and organization. 6th Med-CORDEX Workshop - Toulouse (France) - 25-29th November 2019 (invited speaker), pdf

Somot S. (2019) GCM-RCM inconsistency in projecting the future climate change in Europe : the role of the aerosol forcing ? Joint Workshop C3S_34b_lot2 – C3S_34b_lot1, 23-24 september 2019, Copenhaguen (Danemark) (oral), pdf


Somot S. (2018) Future evolution of the Western Mediterranean Deep Water formation under climate change : a coupled high-resolution multi-model approach. MedCLIVAR 2018 conference, Belgrade, Sept 2018 (oral), pdf

Somot S. (2018) Recent climate modelling efforts in the Mediterranean region. MedCLIVAR 2018 conference, Belgrade, Sept 2018 (keynote speaker), pdf

Somot S. (2018) Med-CORDEX : from phase 1 to phase 2. 1st FPS-Aerosol workshop. Toulouse, 12-13 June 2018 (oral), pdf

Somot S. (2018) A 15-year history of coupled regional climate modelling for the Mediterranean : success stories and current challenges. Regional Climate System Modelling for the European Seas Regions. Med-CORDEX Baltic Earth COST Workshop, Majorca, March 2018 (Oral, invited speaker), pdf

Somot S. (2018) Issue with the CNRM-CM5 boundary conditions provided for CORDEX RCM. Annual meeting Euro-CORDEX, Hamburg (Germany), 29-31 Janvier 2018 (Oral), pdf


Somot S., Darmaraki S., Sevault F., Nabat P., Cavicchia L., Li L., Djurdjevic V., Cabos W., Sein D., Sannino G. (2017) Robust assessment of the Mediterranean Sea future evolution using the Med-CORDEX RCSM multi-model ensemble : illustration for the Marine Heat Waves. International MISTRALS workshop : Climate Change Impacts in the Mediterranean Region, 16-18 October 2017, Montpellier (oral)

Somot S., Jordà G. (2017) Med-CORDEX phase 2 : focus on the baseline runs. 10th International HyMeX Workshop and 4th Med-CORDEX workshop. Barcelona (Spain). 3-7 July 2017 (oral, solicited)

Somot S. (2017) Current status of Med-CORDEX phase 1. 10th International HyMeX Workshop and 4th Med-CORDEX workshop. Barcelona (Spain). 3-7 July 2017 (oral, solicited)


Somot S., Sevault F., Nabat P., Dubois C., Kiki (2016) How can high-resolution representation of the regional seas and aerosols modify regional climate change ? A fully-coupled regional climate system approach to question current CORDEX experimental protocol. International Conference on Regional Climate – CORDEX 2016, Stockholm, May 2016, Invited speaker.

Somot S., Alias A., Déqué M. (2016) First climate simulations with the CNRM convection-permitting RCM : AROME-Climate. Annual meeting Euro-CORDEX, Hamburg (Germany), 26-28 Janvier 2016 (Oral)

Somot S., Nabat P. (2016) Aerosol radiative impacts on the European climate and aerosol issues in Euro-CORDEX RCMs. Annual meeting Euro-CORDEX, Hamburg (Germany), 26-28 Janvier 2016 (Oral)


Somot S., L. Houpert, F. Sevault, P. Testor, A. Bosse, I. Taupier-Letage, M.-N. Bouin, R. Waldman, E. Sanchez-Gomez, C. Cassou, X. Durrieu de Madron, F. Adloff, M. Herrmann (2015) Interannual variability of the deep water formation in the North-West Mediterranean Sea using a fully-coupled Regional Climate System Model. HyMex-Baltic Earth Workshop Joint regional climate system modelling for the European sea regions. 5-6 November 2015, Rome, Italy (oral)

Somot S. (2015) HyMeX 5-year review : Mediterranean Sea Water Budget. MISTRALS international conference, Environment in the Mediterranean Statements and Prospects for Research and Society. 20-22 October 2015, Villa Méditerranée, Marseille, France (oral, solicited)

Somot S. and the Med-CORDEX Steering Committee (2015) HyMeX 5-year science review : Regional Climate Modelling Science Team Med-CORDEX (former TTM3). 9th International HyMeX Workshop. Mykonos (Greece). 21-25 September 2015 (oral, solicited)

Somot S., L. Houpert, F. Sevault, P. Testor, A. Bosse, X. Durrieu de Madron, C. Dubois, M. Herrmann, R. Waldman, M.-N. Bouin, C. Cassou (2015) Interannual variability (1979-2013) of the North-Western Mediterranean deep water mass formation : past observation reanalysis and coupled ocean-atmosphere high-resolution modelling. European Geophysical Union Assembly 2015, April 2015, Vienne (Autriche, OS1.1, oral)

Somot S and the Med-CORDEX team (2015) Med-CORDEX : a first coordinated inter-comparison of high-resolution and fully coupled regional climate models for the Mediterranean. European Geophysical Union Assembly 2015, April 2015, Vienne (Autriche, CL4.1, oral)


Somot S. (2014) Open-sea deep convection in the North-Western Mediterranean : replacing the HyMeX 2012-2013 Winter in the past climate variability. 8th International HyMeX Workshop, Valetta (Malta), 15-18 September 2014

Somot S. (2014) Med-CORDEX : a first coordinated inter-comparison of fully coupled regional climate system models (RCSM) for the Mediterranean. 3rd Lund Regional-scale Climate Modelling Workshop « 21st Century Challenges in Regional Climate Modelling », Lund (Suède), 16-19 June 2014 (talk)

Somot S. (2014) Status of the Med-CORDEX initiative. The HyMeX Regional Climate Modelling Science Team (former TTM3). 3rd international Med-CORDEX workshop, Palaiseau (France), 26-28 May 2014 (solicited talk).

Somot S. (2014) L’initiative Med-CORDEX : intercomparaison de modèles climatiques régionaux couplés en Méditerranée pour l’étude de la variabilité climatique passée et du changement climatique futur. Journée thématique « Couplage océan-atmosphère » du LEFE-MANU, Paris (France), 11 avril 2014 (Oral)

Somot S. (2014) What has been attained by CLIM-RUN and what are the gaps to be filled ? The WP2 experience. Final meeting of the CLIM-RUN project, Venise (Italy), 24-25 February 2014 (talk)


Somot S., Ruti P. and the MedCORDEX team (2013) The Med-CORDEX initiative : first use of very high resolution RCMs and fully-coupled multi-component Regional Climate System Models to assess climate variability and change in the Mediterranean. International conference on Regional Climate – CORDEX 2013, Brussels, November 2013, Sollicited speaker.

Somot S., Houpert L., Durrieu de Madron X., Testor P., Adloff F., Dubois C., Herrmann M., Waldman R., Bouin M.-N., Sevault F. (2013) Model evaluation and understanding of the interannual variability (1980-2012) of the North-Western Mediterranean open-sea deep convection. 40th CIESM congress, Marseille, October 2013

Somot S., Houpert L., Durrieu de Madron X., Bosse A., Testor P., Adloff F., Dubois C., Herrmann M., Waldman R., Bouin M.-N., Sevault F. (2013) Observation-based indicators, model evaluation and understanding of the interannual variability (1980-2012) of the North-Western Mediterranean open-sea deep convection. 7th International HyMeX Workshop, Cassis (France), October 2013

Somot S., Nabat P. (2013) Aerosol radiative effect on Mediterranean climate : implication for solar energy. General assembly of the CLIM-RUN project, Roma (Italy), 8-10 July 2013 (talk)

Somot S. (2013) Characteristics of the NW Mediterranean Sea from Sept 2012 to March 2013 (SOP1 and SOP2). HyMeX SOPs’ Debriefing workshop (April 2013, Toulouse). Oral (invited).


Somot S. (2012) CORDEX : The Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment : background, status and perspectives. Workshop MISSTERRE-CORDEX, Nov 2012, Paris (keynote speaker).

Somot S., 2012 : « Regional Climate Modelling : motivations, techniques, illustrations, climate change scenario and uncertainties » First CLIM-RUN Summer school on Climate Services, 15 September 2012, Trieste, Italy (Lecturer)

Somot S. and the MedCORDEX team (2012) “The Med-CORDEX initiative : coordinated exercise with fully coupled Regional Climate System Models to study the Mediterranean climate variability and change”. 6th International HyMeX Workshop, Primosten (Croatia), May 2012 (solicited talk)

Somot S. (2012) “Regional ocean climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean Sea : assessing the uncertainties along the 21st century” European Geophysical Union Assembly 2012, April 2012, Vienne (Autriche, CL4.3) (talk)

Somot S. (2012) “The Med-CORDEX initiative : towards fully coupled Regional Climate System Models to study the Mediterranean climate variability, change and impact” European Geophysical Union Assembly 2012, April 2012, Vienne (Autriche, CL5.10) (talk)

Somot S. (2012) « HyMeX-TTM3 : Regional Climate Modelling ». HyMeX-TTM3 and MedCORDEX workshop, Toulouse, April 2012 (solicited talk).

Somot S. (2012) “WP2 : New climate modelling and analysis”. General assembly of the CLIM-RUN project, Barcelona (Spain), April 2012 (talk)



Climate Modelling of the Mediterranean Basin : Variability and climate change scenario


Modélisation Climatique du Bassin Méditerranéen : Variabilité et Scénarios de Changement Climatique

PhD thesis abstract (pdf)

PhD thesis manuscrit (pdf, 25 Mo)

PhD thesis oral (ppt, 6 Mo)


Mediterranean, regional climate modelling, air-sea coupling, ocean deep convection, thermohaline circulation, cyclogenesis, climate variability, climate change


Méditerranée, modélisation climatique régionale, couplage océan-atmosphère, convection océanique profonde, circulation thermohaline, cyclogénèse, variabilité climatique, changement climatique


Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclogenesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclogenesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower interannual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21st century with the non-coupled models : cyclogenesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean.


Les flux air-mer, la convection profonde et la cyclogénèse sont étudiés en Méditerranée grâce au développement d’un modèle régional couplé (AORCM). Il reproduit correctement ces processus et permet de quantifier et d’étudier leur variabilité climatique. Le couplage régional a un impact significatif sur le nombre de cyclogénèses intenses en hiver et sur les flux et précipitations associés. Il simule une variabilité interannuelle plus faible qu’en mode forcé pour les flux et la convection et permet de comprendre les rétroactions qui la pilotent. L’impact régional d’un scénario climatique est analysé avec les modèles non-couplés : le nombre de cyclogénèses diminue, les pluies associées augmentent au printemps et en automne et diminuent en été. En outre, la Méditerranée se réchauffe, se sale et sa circulation thermohaline s’affaiblit fortement. Cette thèse conclut de plus à la nécessité des AORCMs pour étudier l’impact du changement climatique en Méditerranée.

Tuesday, 13th December 2005 (Conference room at CNRM, Toulouse)

Mardi 13 décembre 2005 (Salle de Conférence au CNRM, Toulouse)

 Teaching and Outreach

[en, fr] Quel Climat en Europe pour 2050 ?
Inspiré du 6ème rapport du GIEC et juste à temps pour la COP26 à Glasgow, je vous propose ce film grand public de 5 minutes qui décrit le climat de l’Europe envisagé pour 2050.
C’est ici en français, anglais, allemand, espagnol, italien, suédois et croate (merci l’agence Vuxe, le projet EUCP, et le service de communication du CNRS).

[fr] Mon cours de modélisation régionale du climat avec illustration par le changement climatique attendu en Europe et en France :

  • La version la plus récente possède un DOI citable (doi:10.5281/zenodo.4586910) et est accessible
  • Les slides de la version de Jan. 2021 sont ici
  • Un diaporama + son de la version 2017 est disponible : lien1 , lien2
  • Une version filmée datant de 2007 est accessible sur le site de Planet-Terre (ENSL), ici

[fr] Mon cours sur le modèle régional de climat CNRM-ALADIN :

  • Disponible ici

[en, fr] Explaining uncertainties in future climate change projections : a simple and short educational movie in English or in French

[fr] Interview (mars 2021) pour la radio suisse RTS dans l’émission Prise de Terre sur les épisodes méditerranéens de pluie intense : lien du podcast

[fr] Interview format YouTube pour le web-media Le Blob reprise sur le site web du journal Le Monde : 3 questions sur le changement climatique du bassin méditerranéen

[fr] Évolution climatique des canicules océaniques en Méditerranée article vulgarisé en français ici et . Le diagramme bulle en pdf.

[fr] Pluies extrêmes et crues en Méditerranée article vulgarisé en français ici et . Et un autre ici.

[fr] Qu’est-ce que la modélisation régionale climatique ? article vulgarisé en français ici

[fr] Modélisation climatique : comment passer du global au local ? article vulgarisé et interview en Français. ici

[fr] Interview sur mon métier de chercheur (2019) : ici

[fr] Les modèles de climat interview en Français. ici

[fr] Le film du programme HyMeX : ici

[en] Interview for the CLIM-RUN project on Mediterranean climate and climate services : here

Le contenu de cette page n’engage que son auteur et en aucune manière la responsabilité du CNRM.