Science question 5
How to deliver tailored weather, climate, environmental information at infra-urban resolution?
Once models and nowcasting systems are able to produce forecasts at 100m of resolution, the next step is to study how to use them to provide some useful information for the end-user.
In cities, and especially during events such as the Olympic Games, there are many end-users, such as the meteorological forecasters (first), but also the public, the athletes, the security and safety institutions, the inhabitants, …
To the forecasters and for model directly used for some end-user oriented application, pertinent model outputs need to be given. The fact that the turbulence is now resolved by the wind field means that averages of some sort need to be done, because the turbulent flow is not, in itself, pertinent for the forecast. The meaning of the 100m model output need to be assessed, in relationship with the complex urban structure. What does the model represent?
The fusion of non-conventional data and high-resolution urban models’ outputs may also allow to provide pertinent information at a high-scale (temporal and spatial) than what would be possible with only one of the components.
Pertinent indices need also to be defined, for example linked to thermal comfort, health risks and so on. Because of the complexity of the city system, social science research is needed to do the link towards the various and diverse end users’ needs. Weather services linked to extreme events in cities is of particular interest for WMO.